Import/Export between DSK and PC Directory
This is a utility that makes it easier to work with virtual disk images. Features Include:
- Open an existing virtual disk image (including hard drives)
- Create a new virtual disk image
- Add files to or extract files from the disk image (with file dates preserved)
- Integrated File Viewer to Preview files. Supported Views:
- Text files, with any line ending
- Tokenized Model III BASIC programs
- Model III and Model 4 high-resolution images (/HR)
- Model 4 compressed high-resolution images (/CHR)
- Model 4 super-compressed high-resolution images (/SHR)
- EDTASM source files
- CMD program files, displayed as a Z80 disassembly
- Binary files (which can be viewed as a hexadecimal dump)
- MULTIDOS high-resolution images
- Rename files
- Delete files
- Change the disk label and volume date
- Drag and Drop support to and from Windows Explorer
- Patch LDOS to Accept File Dates Beyond 2012 (v1.05)
- Read-only support for Color Computer RSDOS disks (v1.06)
- Read and Write support for NEWDOS/86 (v1.07)
- Read and Write support for TRSDOS v2.7 and v2.8 (v1.08)
- Display PDRIVE Information for NEWDOS/80 Disks (v1.08)
- Read and write support for over thirty-two TRS-80 CP/M formats, including Holmes, Lobo, LNW, Radio Shack, and Montezuma Micro (v1.08)
- Read FreHD Partitions (v1.13)
- Read support for TRSDOS v2.3B (v1.13)
TRSREAD and TRSWRITE are command line utilities which allow for the import and export of files to/from DSK and DMK images. Matthew’s TRS-80 emulators, like most emulators, use virtual disk images rather than actual floppy disks or hard drives. Virtual disk images are representations of floppy and hard disks and contain the same information as real disks.
TRSREAD usage is TRSREAD [options] virtual disk [files] where the [options] are
-s – Include system files
-i – Include invisible files
-e – Extract files from virtual disk
-v – Display directory of virtual disk (default)
-o – Overwrite Existing Files
-p – Select Partition (New in v4.35)
Intended to allow one to perform a series of operations (read, write, rename, delete etc.) on files stored in a TRS-80 virtual disk image.
- Supports all known TRS-80 model I/III/4 Operating Systems, except CP/M
- Display the directory of files from the disks
- Extract files from the disks
- Add new files to the disks
- Rename existing disk files
- Delete files
- Show the contents of a file (Hex/ASCII dump)
- Show the contents of an entire disk (Hex/ASCII dump)
Note: Requires “libgcc_s_dw2-1.dll” (not included)
- -l – List directory (default)
- -r – Read files
- -w – Write files
- -n – Rename files
- -k – Delete files
- -f – Dump file contents
- -d – Dump disk contents
This is a small utility which allows you to access virtual TRS-80 DSK/DMK images at a file level, as if they were normal PC disks. A virtual TRS-80 disk is actually a PC file encoded with information extracted from a real TRS-80 floppy, in order to preserve its content and also to enable its use with TRS-80 emulators.
The TRS-80 Virtual Disk Manager shows the file name, size, date and attributes of each directory item, supports reading both .DSK and .DMK image files, and allows exporting TRS-80 files to the Windows file system.
Only read support is implemented.
VREAD and VWRITE were the first DSK import/export utilities, packaged by Jeff Vavasour with his Model I emulator. These utilities cannot process only single density DSK files.
This program reads DSK files, and displays the disk filenames in a list box. Clicking on a file, allows the file to be saved to a PC folder. It can be used just to view the Files on a DSK/DMK, if you dont want to copy the files.
It doesn’t always work, but it has definitely helped me extract files from DSK images which the emulator would not recognize.
Transfer utility for David Keil’s emulator between the emulator and DOS
Virtual Disk Image Format Converters
This is a utility that converts from TD0 (Teledisk) or IMD (ImageDisk) to DMK Format. Features include:
- Convert TD0, IMD, D88, and DMK Images to DMK and D88
- Identify virtual disk errors (Note: Exports CRC and BadID sectors as read, doesn’t attempt to ‘fix’ nor ‘repair’ them)
- DMK Repair (automatically merge good tracks/sectors from two different DMK images into one fixed image)
- Import real Double Density (NO SD) disks into DMK and D88 formats using the built in floppy disk controller (install “fdinstall” beforehand)
- Display directory of Model II disks (TRSDOS 1.2 and 2.0, LS-DOS 6.3.1 and DOSPLUS II A.00)
While this is a complete ImageDisk package, it includes utilities which will convert from BIN (Binary), DMK (TRS-80 Standard), and TD0 (TeleDisk) to IMG.
Will convert between DSK and DMK formats under Windows (current release within the CW2DMK package cannot run in x64 Windows)
DSK/DMK Display Utilities
A small DMK file editor/viewer which is also able to compare two different DMK files. Works on tracks and sectors only and does not deal with file name or directories. Handles mixed density disks and displays both single-density and double-density sectors, even if they have the same sector numbers. Displays the CRC for each sector and indicates whether the CRC is bad or not. If you edit a sector the CRC is automatically updated (and corrected). Of course you have to know what you are doing when modifying disk sectors, especially when they contain program files. Can edit using either hexadecimal or ASCII input.
Will display the contents of a CP/M DSK image.
Linux USAGE: ./dskdir MMCPM231.DSK
This program reads .DSK and DMK files, and displays the disk parameters, such as, Type of Emulator file, No of sides, Density, Tracks, Dual density, Tracks start at sector 1, etc. For Newdos disks, it will show the Pdrive paramters of the disk. You can step through, and view the sector information, and the sector density for Dual Density disks. Stepping a Newdos disk, the present lump will be displayed Clicking the directory button, will display the start of the directory. Stepping through the directory sectors will show the File names in the directory, and also in colour, the bytes, that show where the files are located on the disk.
Mode 2: Sector display
This mode displays the sector, numbers and Density, on each track, in numerical order, or in the actual interleave order. It also shows the sectors with differing Data address marks. Handy to see the tracks densities, and no. of sectors. On most disks, this can show the Directory sectors, but some early disks have weird combinations of data address marks.
Mode 3: Hex Editor
Will display the Hex and Ascii bytes of any file. This was a for myself, to have a look at the funny files that could not be read by the program. I left it in, as it may be handy for someone. For Emulator Dmk, and JV files, it shows the headers, Blocks, Idams, etc, in different colours to easily identify the set up of these files.
DSK/DMK Analysis Utilities
Will display the PDRIVE settings of any DSK or DMK image which was “formatted” by NEWDOS/80.
This utility analyzes DSK and DMK files and shows filename, DOS, PDRIVES, Tracks, Density, Sides, Sec/Cyl and SPG. Will also note where Track Sectors start at 1.
DMK Format Details
Files with a .DSK extension could be JV1, JV3, or DMK format. The DMK format is a format developed by David Keil which allows for the storing of TRS-80 disks in pure form, which would allow for the representation of copy protected disks into emulator images. The DMK format gives the ability to support any FM or MFM encoded format that is reasonably close to the IBM 3740 or IBM System 34 standards.
DMK format disks are easy to discern because of its 16 byte header. Emulators made after 2005 should handle the DMK format.
The DMK virtual disk format is as close to the way data on a real disk is stored as possible. There is very little added overhead and the data is easily examined and edited using PC based hex editors. The actual design is really quite simple and enables support of ALL the WD-17xx controller functions and formats. While the design is simple however the programming requirements for this format are much more extensive then for the JV1/JV3 formats.
Virtual disks have a 16 byte disk header which is initialized when the user creates a new virtual disk. This header may be modified before or after a virtual disk has been formatted to change some of its characteristics.
Note: This field should NEVER be modified. Changing this number will cause TRS-80 operating system disk errors. (Like reading an 80 track disk in a 40 track drive)
WARNING: Bytes are entered in reverse order (ex. 2940H would be entered, byte 2=40, byte 3=29).
Note: No modification of the track length is necessary, doing so only saves space and is not necessary to normal operation. The values for all normal 5.25? and 8? disks are set when the virtual disk is created. DON’T modify the track length unless you understand these instructions completely. Nothing in the PC world can be messed up by improper modification but any other virtual disk mounted in the emulator with an improperly modified disk could have their data scrambled.
Bit 6 of this byte, if set, means this disk is to be single density size and the emulator will access one byte instead of two when doing I/O in single density. Double density can still be written to a single density disk but with half the track length only 10 256 byte sectors can be written in either density. Mixed density is also possible but sector timing may be off so protected disks may not work, a maximum of 10 256 byte sectors of mixed density can be written to a single density disk. A program like “Spook House” which has a mixed density track 0 with 1 SD sector and 1 DD sector and the rest of the disk consisting of 10 SD sectors/track will work with this flag set and save half the PC hard disk space. The protected disk “Super Utility + 3.0” however has 6 SD and 6 DD sectors/track for a total of 12 256 byte sectors/track. This disk cannot be single density.
This bit is set if the user selects single density during disk creation and should not require modification. This flag is used only to save PC hard disk space and is never required.
Bit 7 of this byte, if set, means density is to be ignored when accessing this disk. The disk MUST be formatted in double density but the emulator will then read and write the sectors in either density. The emulator will access one byte instead of two when doing I/O in single density.
This flag was an early way to support mixed density disks it is no longer needed for this purpose. It is now used for compatibility with old virtual disks created without the double byte now used when in single density. This bit can be set manually in a hex editor to access old virtual disks written in single density.
Must be 12345678h if virtual disk is a REAL disk specification file used to access REAL TRS-80 floppies in compatible PC drives.
Note: Modification within MSDOS could however be done to emulate a protected disk in the TRS-80 emulator. Each side of each track has a 128 (80H) byte header which contains an offset pointer to each IDAM in the track. This allows a maximum of 64 sector IDAMs/track. This is more than twice what an 8 inch disk would require and 3.5 times that of a normal TRS-80 5 inch DD disk. This should more than enough for any protected disk also.
Each IDAM pointer has two flags. Bit 15 is set if the sector is double density. Bit 14 is currently undefined. These bits must be masked to get the actual sector offset. For example, an offset to an IDAM at byte 90h would be 0090h if single density and 8090h if double density.
These IDAM pointers MUST adhere to the following rules.
- Each pointer is a 2 byte offset to the FEh byte of the IDAM. In double byte single density the pointer is to the first FEh.
- The offset includes the 128 byte header. For example, an IDAM 10h bytes into the track would have a pointer of 90h, 10h+80h=90h.
- The IDAM offsets MUST be in ascending order with no unused or bad pointers.
- If all the entries are not used the header is terminated with a 0000h entry. Unused entries must also be zero filled.
- Any IDAMs overwritten during a sector write command should have their entry removed from the header and all other pointer entries shifted to fill in.
- The IDAM pointers are created during the track write command (format). A completed track write MUST remove all previous IDAM pointers. A partial track write (aborted with the forced interrupt command) MUST have it’s previous pointers that were not overwritten added to the new IDAM pointers.
- The pointer bytes are stored in reverse order (LSB/MSB).
Modification should not be done since doing so without updating the CRCs would cause data errors. Modification could be done however to create protected tracks for importing protected disks to virtual disk format. Examples of disks created using this technique are “Super Utility+ 3.0” and “Forbidden City”.